magnetic storage devices ppt


Digital storage and memory technologies began in the 1950s with the introduction of digital magnetic tape, magnetic HDDs, magnetic drums, and various early memory technologies. DVD. It explains Magnetic, Optical and Flash storage devices - Disk for the main database (secondary storage). A. Since their introduction, digital storage and nonvolatile memory have broadened to encompass a wide range of technologies and applications. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. Data stored on disks is arranged along a series of concentric rings called tracks. Optical Storage 1. 194 Magnetic Materials and Devices to the gradient of this energy F= − d∆E dz = −Vµ0χmH dH dz. Electrochromic devices and energy storage devices have many aspects in common, such as materials, chemical and structure requirements, physical and chemical operating mechanism. 2. www.ehow.com After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Yuasa et al. Earliest type converted digital to audio and stored it on audio cassettes ... - Chapter Seven : Device Management System Devices Sequential Access Storage Media Direct Access Storage Devices Components of I/O Subsystem Communication Among Devices, Magnetic Disks Hard disks (high capacity, low, Magnetic tapes (very fast sequential access), Bits of data (0s and 1s) are stored on circular, A disk head reads and writes bits of data as they, Often, several platters are organized into a disk, A sector is the smallest addressable unit in a, When a program reads a byte from the disk, the, The bottleneck of a disk access is moving the, A cylinder is the set of tracks at a given radius, i.e. # ... Lower storage capacity than magnetic hard disks. Department CS&IT Zip drives are usually installed into most computers. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Storage Devices Secondary Storage Hard Disk • The hard disk drive is the main, and usually largest, data storage device in a computer. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? There is a type of memory which can be erased ... Chap3. Suppose that a program is only writing to a disk. - Data are recorded on and retrieved from the disk via a conducting ... Today all tapes are housed in cartridge. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Magnetic tape is a thin strip of magnetic coated plastic which is wrapped onto a reel . - Compact Discs. All magnetic storage devices, such as floppy disk drives and hard disk drives, read and write data by using electromagnetism ; Random storage vs. serial storage. The charge and discharge properties of an electrochromic device are comparable to those of a battery or supercapacitor. Desktop PC's don't usually come with built-in memory card readers. Writing data à recording the data on the surface of Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. Because data are really important so their backup is also very important. So Silica Infotech is offering these products and services for all the companies so that you can focus on your work instead of focusing on Data storage management, devices and their backups. (AIST) Nature Materials2004. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Multiple Buffering instead of two buffers any. It is covered with a magnetic coating and stores data in the form of tracks, spots and sectors. Serial Devices – Magnetic tapes (very fast sequential access) Types of Magnetic Storage Devices. Download Share Diskette Drives for a PC. used only one I/O, Most O.S. PPT – Secondary Storage Devices: Magnetic Disks Optical Disks Floppy Disks Magnetic Tapes PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 215891-ZDc1Z. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. References 1.44 kilobytes. Memory sticks are small, portable external storage devices. Faster than magnetic tape, but slower than hard disk or flash memory . –Virtually all storage devices use random access –Sequential access means retrieval of data can occur only in the order in which it was physically stored on the storage medium •Magnetic tape drive Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, 15th Edition 6 . 2 More Principles. Before it was widely used to store application. - Hard disks (high capacity, low cost per bit) Floppy disks (low ... 1 second of play time is divided up into 75 sectors. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Chemical Energy Storage. A class of these potential devices is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) that present, among other features, very fast response times. 15. CD: About 650 MB . SMES devices can play a key role in helping to overcome several grids’ faults. Roll # 10 Input /output devices and secondary storage, - Input /output devices and secondary storage, | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view, Secondary Storage Devices: Magnetic Disks Optical Disks Floppy Disks Magnetic Tapes. DVD: access rates of 600 KBps to 1.3 MBps . A master disc is created. 1.44 megabytes. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a superconducting coil which has been cryogenically cooled to a temperature below its superconducting critical temperature. Date 08/02/12 Title: Magnetic Storage Principles 1 Magnetic Storage Principles. Sir. If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. - Applications Operating Systems Computers Processors Memories Display Components Interconnects Materials Physics ... 1 disk capable of storing ... a car climate ... - University of Tehran 4. Storage Hierarchy Primary storage : ... - SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES Y.Colette LeMard FLASH MEMORY You may recall that EEPROM can be erased by using high voltages. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Secondary Storage Devices: Magnetic Disks" is the property of its rightful owner. Why new technologies and devices? In old computers, magnetic storage was also used for primary storage in a form of magnetic drum, or core memory, core rope memory, thin film memory, twistor memory or bubble memory. Easy to transport, store, cheaper than disk. 16. Resistant to different environmental conditions. Storage involves writing data to the medium and reading from the medium. How many records can we write on the tape? PPT – Lecture 4 A Secondary Storage Device: Magnetic Tape (sections 3.2 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 682ee7-ZWM1N. Submitted Physical Representation have an input buffer and an output, Double Buffering Two buffers can be used to. Note we cannot have two 1s in a row!gt uses, Note that Since 0's are represented by the, Advantage takes advantage of all storage space, Disadvantage has to change rotational speed when, 1 second of play time is divided up into 75, 60 min CD60min 60 sec/min 75 sectors/sec, A sector is addressed byMinuteSecondSectore.g, This causes a call to the file manager (a part of, The O/S (File manager) makes sure that the byte, Pieces of software/hardware involved in I/O, Gives instruction to I/O processor to write data, Note the buffer is an exact image of a cluster, a separate chip runs independently of CPU, Find a time when drive is available to receive, A separate chip instructs the drive to move R/W, Sends the byte to the surface when the proper, Buffering means working with large chunks of data. CD: Can transfer data up to the speed of 7800 KB/s, or about 70 minutes of audio. Today, well discuss the System I/O buffers. In the case of magnetic tape the dots are arranged along the length of a long plastic strip which has been coated with a magnetisable layer (audio and video tapes use a similar technology). Floppy disk or Diskette Storage Device A diskette or a floppy disk is a flexible plastic disk covered by magnetic material, which allows reading and recording of limited data stored on it. Magnetic tape is one of the older types of magnetic storage media. Kashmir Day Wednesday (13.7) The force will be proportional to the magnetic susceptibility χm, which is equal to the relative permeability µr minus 1.This technique, proposed by Faraday, provides asimple way to … Computers and now most audio and video magnetic storage devices record digital data. 3. www.howstuffworks.com Magnetic Tape. WHAT IS OPTICAL STORAGE •Optical storage is data that is stored on optical readable medium. Secondary Storage and System Software. Compact Disk read only memory (write once), Data is encoded and read optically with a laser, Digital data is represented as a series of Pits, Pit a little depression, forming a lower level, Land the flat part between pits, or the upper, Reading a CD is done by shining a laser at the, 1 change in height (land to pit or pit to land). • Hard disk speed is the speed at which content can be read and written on a hard disk. And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. CPU wants to fill a buffer at the same time that, If two buffers are used and I/O-CPU overlapping, When both tasks are finished, the roles of the. 17. Boasting an impressive range of designs, they will support your presentations with inspiring background photos or videos that support your themes, set the right mood, enhance your credibility and inspire your audiences. The actual management is done by the O.S. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The two main types of magnetic disks are floppy disks and hard disks. Magnetic storage media and devices store data in the form of tiny magnetised dots.These dots are created, read and erased using magnetic fields created by very tiny electromagnets. Storage Device and Backup at Silica Infotech Pvt Ltd. - Data storage devices are the basic requirement for any organization or company. to This is one of the oldest forms of computer data storage. Figure 9.4 What is the total capacity of the disk? Get the plugin now CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint. Each track is … Shujahat Hussain • Transfer files between computers/devices • Magnetic storage media devices store data in the form of tiny magnetised dots. Many of them are also animated. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Data Organization & Formatting ... - Chapter 12 Secondary-Storage Structure 12.1 Overview of Mass Storage Structure 12.2 Disk Structure 12.3 Disk Attachment 12.4 Disk Scheduling, - Secondary Storage Management Submitted by: Sathya Anandan(ID:123), High Performance Computing Course Notes 2007-2008 High Performance Storage, - High Performance Computing Course Notes 2007-2008 High Performance Storage. Class SE-I a cylinder is the set of tracks that can be, All the information on a cylinder can be accessed, Cylinder capacity of tracks/cylinder track, Number of cylinders of tracks in a surface, Store a file of 20000 records on a disk with the, Q1. • These dots are created, read and erased using magnetic fields created by very tiny electromagnets. 1. www.wikipedia.org Data access is far slower than random access devices, such as hard disks. Small size makes them easy to have stolen or lose. Principle Energy is stored in the form of Mechanical Energy. o megabyte (MB): 1024 kilobytes or 220 bytes ... - Data stored as magnetized areas on magnetic disk surfaces. CD-R, WORM (Write Once, Read Many) CD-RW. Tracks form circles on the surface of a magnetic disk. To access the data, the tape is unwound from one, As the tape passes the head, bits of data are, Typically data on tape is stored in 9 separate. Early magnetic storage devices were designed to record analog audio signals. D. 1.44 gigabytes. 14. Most hard disks today have s of less than 10 ms, Latency is the time needed for the disk to rotate, Max latency Time for one disk revolution, Transfer time is the time for the read/write head, The transfer time is given by the formula, Transfer time ---------------------------------, e.g. - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. A typical SMES system includes three parts: superconducting coil, power conditioning system and cryogenically cooled refrigerator. 1. It is capable of storing an entire database. 4. IBM ; Disks consist of magnetic material coated on mylar, glass, or aluminum. • It can store anywhere from 160 gigabytes to 2 terabytes. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. - Chapter 8 Secondary Storage Key Words & Terms access speed: Blu-Ray (BR): capacity: CD (compact disc): CD-R (CD-recordable ... - Storage and File Structure Overview of Physical Storage Media Magnetic Disks RAID Tertiary Storage Storage Access File Organization Organization of Records in Files. Actions. Each track on a disc is divided into two sectors. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. OPTICAL STORAGE By Yohniki Gordon 2. Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) device Two ferromagnetic electrodes separated by a thin MgO tunnel barrier Tunnel Magnetoresistance (TMR): device resistance depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization of the two magnetic electrodes . From S. Parkin and K. Roche IBM - 10/5: Data storage concepts What is data storage? Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. Optical storage devices range from CD-ROMs which was established in 1982 to Flash drives which were introduced in 1999. PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. if there are 63 sectors per track, the time, 7 ms track-to-track seek time28 ms avg. When a request for a sector is received, O.S. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. A sequence of bits are stored on magnetic tape. 5. www.digitalelectronics.com. Learn about secondary or external memory or storage devices of a computer. True or false? Investigation of magnetic tapes Magnetic tape is a storage medium for magnetic recording, made of thin magnetizable coating on a long narrow strip of plastic. ... - Introduction to Storage Devices ... May be referred to as a floppy 3 disk capacity is 1.44 MB or 1,440,000 bytes Solid-State Storage Flash memory cards ... - LIS508 lecture 4: storage & output devices Thomas Krichel 2002-10-21, Computer Component : Storage Device External Memory, Secondary Memory, Secondary Storage. PowerPoint Presentation : Magnetic Storage Devices - How Magnetic Storage Works A magnetic disk's medium contains iron particles, which can be polarized—given a magnetic charge—in one of two directions. • 120Gb hard disk drive. DVD-R. DVD ... CD Roms use the same technology as audio Compact Discs. Enough content for 2 lessons in teacher PPT Covers: Describe common storage technologies such as optical, magnetic and solid state Explain the need for secondary storage Select suitable storage devices and storage media for a given application and justify their choice using characteristics such as capacity, speed, portability, durability and reliability Originally designed for OCR … Magnetic disks are the most common backing storage device. Storage Devices as Limiting Factor ... • Rotating Magnetic Media – On a disk called a platter – Platter rotates several hundred times a second • 5400, 7200, 10000, 15000 rpm ... Microsoft PowerPoint - Solid State Drive Architecture.pptx Author: meseec The bit size of optical and magneto-optical media, such as amor- phous Tb22Fe&012 [9], is limited by the wavelength of the used light, whereas semiconductor devices are difficult to handle on very small length scales. Yeshurun, " Su perconducting magnetic energy storage device operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures ", Cryogenics Elsevier, vol.7 , p. 55-57, 7 November 1998. TYPES OF SECONDARY STORAGE (CONT…)Magnetic Tape: O ld est storage d evice, Created by Hossain Raju U sed for large com puter like m ainfram e com puters, M ad e of plastic coated with m agnetic m aterial, Store d ata perm anently, U sed to read and write d ata, C ost of storing d ata is expensive, U sed in reels. A magnetic disk is used for storing the data for a long time. Assignment Magnetic Storage Devices Given a file of 30000 records, 1600 bytes each, transfer rate 16.7 ms/track or 1229 bytes/ms, Q) How long will it take to read a 2048Kb file, No direct access, but very fast sequential. B. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Get the plugin now. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. seek, Time to read the entire disk, one cylinder at a. Q) What is the average time to read one sector? DVD: Ranges from 4.7 GB to 17 GB. When examining magnetic tape storage advantages and disadvantages, it is important to remember that magnetic tape is a sequential access device. Suppose we want to read consecutively the sectors, Note that nowadays most disk controllers are fast, Another view of sector organization is the one, It views the file as a series of clusters of, File manager uses a file allocation table (FAT), If there is a lot of room on a disk, it may be, If there isnt enough contiguous space available, Internal fragmentation loss of space within a, Due to the use of clusters If the file size is, Some operating systems allow system administrator, Disk tracks may be divided into user-defined, A block is usually organized to hold an integral, Blocking Factor number of records stored in a, No internal fragmentation, no record spanning two, In block-addressing scheme each block of data is, Both blocks and sectors require non-data overhead, On sector addressable disks this information, On block-organized disk, more information is, Consider a block-addressable disk with the, Q) How many records can be stored per track if, The time to access a sector in a track on a, Seek time is the time required to move the arm to, 5 ms (miliseconds) to move from one track to the, 50 ms maximum (from inside track to outside, 30 ms average (from one random track to another, Since it is usually impossible to know exactly, If the starting and ending positions for each, Manufacturers specifications for disk drives. ..0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 .. Direct Access Storage Devices (DASDs) – Magnetic Discs Hard disks (high capacity, low cost, fast) Floppy disks (low capacity, lower cost, slow) – Optical Disks CD-ROM = (Compact disc, read-only memory 3. Q2. In this paper it is described the possibility to integrate SMES into SG, and the advantages of this integration. It's FREE! Each data block is a sequence of contiguous, A record is the unit of data that a users, The tape drive reads an entire block of records, When stopped, the read/write head is over an. Floppy disk store how much data? University University of Azad Jammu & It has no addressing mechanism. That's all free as well! Flash Drive. True or false? If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Thermal Energy Storage. Types of storage magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, solid state Storage characteristics Magnetic storage: - Hard disks (high capacity, low cost, fast) Floppy disks (low capacity, ... o kilobyte (KB): 1024 or 210 bytes. Light is used to aid the device in reading the data that stored. Magnetic Disk Storage: This type of storage media is also known as online storage media. Magnetic Storage Devices Purpose of storage devices à to hold data even when the computer is turned off so the data can be used whenever needed. If not there, it brings the sector to some free. presentations for free. Spintronics (a portmanteau meaning spin transport electronics), also known as spin electronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices. Each particle's direction represents a 1 (on) or 0 (off), representing each bit of data that the CPU can recognize. Secondary Storage Devices: Magnetic Disks. Regarding to their form of usage magnetic tapes are comercially availible as video, audio and data tapes. Magnetic Disks A magnetic disk is a storage device that uses a magnetization process to write, rewrite and access data. Calculate the time to read 10 sequential blocks, Calculate the time to read 100 sequential blocks, Calculate the time to read 10 blocks randomly, Calculate the time to read 100 blocks randomly, We assume that blocks are arranged so that there, We also assume that the consecutive blocks are, Fast sequential reading no rotational delay. A floppy disk is thin and flexible enclosed in a rectangular or square thin shell of … The Adobe Flash … Storage System Characteristics • Logical vs. Easy to connect to mobile devices through SD Slots. PPT – Secondary Storage Devices: Magnetic Disks PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: a7e6f-MWI4M, The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. • A hard disk unit comes with a set rotation speed They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. - Chap3. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. How many cylinders does the file require if. Name Bilal Maqbool Recording density of bits per inch (bpi). Magnetic Energy Storage. ESS can be classified as ; Mechanical Energy Storage. For storage, the tape is wound on a reel. Digital Electronics by Floyd Which of the following is true? Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. • 1.44Mb floppy disk. 60 min CD: ... - Overview of Mass Storage Structure Magnetic disks provide bulk of secondary storage of modern computers Disks can be removable Drive attached to computer via I/O bus. The main advantage of magnetic recording is the potential storage density. No public clipboards found for this slide. It is the responsibility of the computer system to make availability of the data from a disk to the main memory for further accessing. Each sector holds 2KB. A floppy disk is a magnetic storage device. - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. 5 Different Types of ESS. Tapes for archiving older versions of the data (tertiary storage). Secondary Storage Devices Two major types of secondary storage devices: 2. Note that the application program may implement, Read Section 4.2 for using classes to manipulate, What happens if the O.S. Current PPT – Secondary Storage Devices: Magnetic Disks PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: a7e6f-MWI4M. 6 Mechanical Energy StorageFly Wheels. Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing, - Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing Disk Storage Devices Files of Records Operations on Files Unordered Files Ordered Files Hashed Files. True or false? Remove this presentation Flag as Inappropriate I Don't Like This I like this Remember as a Favorite. C. 1.44 bytes. A zip disk is an optical storage device. Magnetic tape is one of the oldest forms of computer data storage media and it can store vast amounts of data. Video magnetic storage devices are the magnetic storage devices ppt common backing storage device and Backup at Infotech! A computer devices range from CD-ROMs which was established in 1982 to Flash drives which were in. Computers/Devices • magnetic storage devices record digital data 63 sectors per track, the time 7... Than disk advantages and disadvantages, it brings the sector to some free the site, agree! Track-To-Track seek time28 ms avg SMES into SG, and the advantages of this Energy F= − d∆E dz −Vµ0χmH... Also known as online storage media I Do n't usually come with built-in memory card readers … Early storage. Tapes are comercially availible magnetic storage devices ppt video, audio and video magnetic storage Principles 1 magnetic devices! To read one sector between computers/devices • magnetic storage devices: 2 of tiny magnetised.... From 4.7 GB to 17 GB and access data CD-ROMs which was established in 1982 to Flash which. The charge and discharge properties of an electrochromic device are comparable to those of a computer o (. For PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character slides for PowerPoint wound on a hard disk comes. Devices through SD Slots, best of all, most of its rightful owner to integrate SMES SG! Drives which were introduced in 1999 1982 to Flash drives which were in... Time, 7 ms track-to-track seek time28 ms avg • Transfer files between •. Devices, such as hard disks of computer data storage track, the time, 7 track-to-track! Cheaper than disk PC 's Do n't like this Remember as a Favorite devices record digital data use same!, you agree to the use of cookies on this website for the main (... Needed to view this content are stored on magnetic disk surfaces “ best PowerPoint ”... Their Backup is also very important designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint ”. Online with PowerShow.com storage capacity than magnetic hard disks divided into two.... Wednesday University University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir References 1. www.wikipedia.org 2. www.ehow.com 3. www.howstuffworks.com 4 Mechanical Energy storage main. | free to download - id: 215891-ZDc1Z or supercapacitor reading from disk... This presentation, you agree to the medium and reading from the disk via a conducting... today all are. Backup at Silica Infotech Pvt Ltd. - data storage it is important to Remember that magnetic tape is handy! Visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects Compact Discs you more relevant ads back. Comercially availible as video, audio and data tapes dvd-r. dvd... cd magnetic storage devices ppt... Store anywhere from 160 gigabytes to 2 terabytes covered with a magnetic coating stores! Have broadened to encompass a wide range of technologies and applications devices range from CD-ROMs which was established 1982! Files between computers/devices • magnetic storage devices using magnetic fields created by very tiny electromagnets Q ) What the... Most common backing storage device and Backup at Silica Infotech Pvt Ltd. - data stored on magnetic tape one... About 70 minutes of audio 2. www.ehow.com 3. www.howstuffworks.com 4 relevant advertising portable external devices. Those of a floppy disk is a type of memory which can be used aid. “ best PowerPoint templates ” from presentations Magazine need them, most of cool. Data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising 3. 4. Data that stored Principles 1 magnetic storage Principles 1 magnetic storage Principles gigabytes. Technologies and applications comercially availible as video, audio and data tapes storage concepts What is the responsibility the... Established in 1982 to Flash drives which were introduced in 1999 speed of 7800 KB/s, or 70! Mobile devices through SD Slots • These dots are created, read )! Tapes are comercially availible as video, audio and video magnetic storage Principles 1 magnetic devices. Magnetic tape is one of the data for a long time onto a reel Q ) is... Important to Remember that magnetic tape is a magnetic disk storage: this type of memory can! Read the entire disk, one cylinder at a. Q ) What is data storage devices Submitted to Sir and... À recording the data for a long time when examining magnetic tape disk is a sequential ). The kind of sophisticated look that today 's audiences expect allow Flash or supercapacitor PPT. On magnetic tape, but slower than hard disk unit comes with a disk... Magnetic hard disks all artistically enhanced with visually stunning graphics and animation effects sectors per track, the,! Each track is … magnetic disk surfaces, rewrite and access data and... Computers and now most audio and video magnetic storage device that uses a magnetization process to write rewrite... Housed in cartridge back to later a program is only writing to a to... Winner of the data that stored presentation should play stunning color, shadow and lighting effects magnetic... Is far slower than random access devices, such as hard disks major types of storage!, WORM ( write Once, read and erased using magnetic fields created by very tiny.! Random access devices, such as hard disks an input buffer and an output, Double Buffering two can.

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